By: Ian K. Seppala
The carousel is one of the most recognizable amusement rides. Carrousel's feature in carnivals, amusement parks, and public places throughout the world. Caroussel's come in various sizes and shapes. A variety of materials are also used to make carousells.
Notice anything in the statement paragraph above? The spelling of the word carousel is as diverse as the attraction. All of the above spellings were at one point used by the American Amusement Industry to promote the carousel. Currently in the United States, Merry-Go-Round is the most popular term. This post provides a brief history of the term carousel, and why is has so many variations. It primarily focuses on the American Amusement industry based on author's expertise. All sources are in English and will be provided using endnotes.
As the Education Director of the Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum I experience the variety of spellings for carousel on a daily basis. When providing our website address over the phone, I must interject with "We spell it with two r's" or they will not get the correct page. Visitors on tours continuously ask about the variation as well. Even though there is a shortened answer, I wanted to provide a longer, but still brief, professional explanation on the matter.
Current English language dictionaries prefer the spelling carousel. However it appears the term merry-go-round is the currently more popular term for the amusement ride. According to dictionary.com, the first definition of a carousel is to see merry-go-round. The second definition is "A continuously revolving belt, track or other device. . ." Famous dictionary company, Merriam-Webster defines carousel as "1. a tournament or exhibition in which horsemen execute revolutions" or "2. a. merry-go-round". It also provides a single variant spelling: carrousel. Merriam-Webster succinctly defines a merry-go-round as "an amusement park ride with seats often in the form of animals (such as horses) revolving about a fixed center". This is the amusement ride we are discussing today.
The ride has gone through a variety of spellings and name changes through history. According to author Tobin Fraley, "The origin of the word itself can be traced to the Arabian games of horsemanship called carosellos, an Italian word meaning little wars" An important innovation in the history of carousels is the introduction of steam power by Englishman Fredrick Savage. In 1870, he calls his new creation roundabouts. Other English companies called their machines Dobbies or Gallopers.
When the carousel came to America it went through a few changes. American carousels rotate in the opposite direction of their British cousins, and new names are adopted. Listed below are some of the North Tonawanda Companies' Competitors and the names of their machines.
In 1867 Gustav Dentzel "renamed his cabinet shop the 'G.A. Dentzel, Steam and Horsepower Caroussell Builder'".
Charles Dare's Company is known as the New York Carousel Manufacturing Company.
In 1907 Stein and Goldstein Artistic Caroussel Manufacturers is formed.
In 1909 M.C. Illions formed M.C. Illions and Sons Carousell works.
Even among the North Tonawanda companies there is differences in naming. The Armitage-Herschell Company began by calling their machines Steam Riding Galleries. Even though these machines mechanically functioned uniquely to today's carousels, they are a precursor and therefore relevant to the argument. Once the above cranking mechanisms were adopted, the companies began to use the carousel moniker.
The Allan Herschell Company records from the Swinson Collection within the Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum Archive show an interesting if not disjointed history with the name of their principal attraction. A 1928 catalog states "No park or amusement resort is complete without a modern Jumping Horse Carrousel" However, a Manual & Guide from October 4th, 1948 describes the same machines as Merry-Go Rounds. The available price lists, from 1948-1969 refer to the machines as carrousels. These price lists would be sent to trade-shows, salesmen, and returning or inquiring customers. A final catalog (circa 1947) refers to the machines as Merry-Go-Rounds.
In conclusion, the words Merry-Go Round and Carousel (in all its spellings) were used to refer to the same amusement ride throughout its history. Each company had its own preferred spelling or term. In some cases, like the Allan Herschell Company, they seemed to use both terms at points in their history. While the reasons behind the preferences are generally lost, it does provide a helpful fact for historians. What a machine is called can provide helpful clues in determining a carousel's manufacturer. So be proud of your preferred term should, be it one r, or two.
 Fraley, Tobin, Carol Bialkowski. The Myth, the Magic, and the Memories. Pg. 7.
 Fraley, Pg. 8.
 Anderson, Sherrell S., Carousel Horses: A Photographic Celebration. Pg 16.
 Fraley, Pg. 11.
 Fraley, Pg. 13.
 Fraley, Pg. 23.
 Fraley, Pg. 21.
 1928 Allan Herschell Co. inc Catalog. Box 2/2.5, AC1 Allan Herschell Company Records, Swinson Collection 1925-1984, Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum.
 Manual & Guide October 4th, 1948. Box 2/2.4, AC1 Allan Herschell Company Records, Swinson Collection 1925-1984, Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum.
 Various Price Lists, Box 2/2.12 Box AC1 Allan Herschell Company Records, Swinson Collection 1925-1984, Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum.
 Circa 1947 Allan Herschell Co. inc Catalog Box 2/2.5, AC1 Allan Herschell Company Records, Swinson Collection 1925-1984, Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum.
The 2020 season will feature a revamped museum gift shop. From the new color scheme to the changed floor plan, the gift shop has items for all your carousel needs. The shop in 2020 will have newly designed items, including shirts and mugs, along with your classic favorites! Be sure to visit the new-look gift shop this season in person or online.
The Education Department is proudly announcing the introduction of STEM Stops into the museum’s exhibits this year! STEM Stops are family friendly, interactive panels that place our historical objects into their Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math contexts. Stops include learning how the carousel moves!
Other projects completed include an updated Exhibit on Spillman Engineering Engines, and the display of a 1940’s Dodgem car graciously donated by Pat McCarty and family.
I want to personally thank our donors, members, visitors, and volunteers for welcoming me into my first full year in the Executive Director position with open arms. Your support means the world to me, and I am humbled to lead such an incredible organization. We had an action-packed 2019, and with your support we were able to accomplish many projects: our friends at Valu Home Center helped to give our Paint Room exhibit a fresh new look; we hosted 5 free admission days over the summer due to generous sponsorship donations from Pioneer Printers, Niagara Regional FCU, Thomas Turtle, Ross Service, Aquasol, and our city of North Tonawanda officials; over 35 tour groups visited the museum this year including, the American Theater Organ Society who brought over 200 theater organ enthusiasts to our site; and we launched Hops for Herschell, a new fundraising event at Flying Bison Brewery. What a fun, productive year.
I truly believe none of our accomplishments would have been possible without our volunteers. Their generosity overwhelms me, and I am very grateful to have such a supportive group of people behind me. One of my highlights of 2019 was getting to have one-on-one conversations with many of our volunteers, and learning what inspired them to be a volunteer at the Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum. My door is always open to volunteers and their ideas. Please stop in and say, “hi!"
We have a lot of exciting projects scheduled for 2020. You’ll notice we have a new logo featured in this issue of The Carrousel Courier. This will be the museum’s new look moving forward, and you’ll see it on some of our gift shop merchandise this year. Speaking of the gift shop, our big winter project has been remodeling the space. Make sure to stop in and check out some of the new products when we open.
President of the Board of Trustees Address By: Rae Proefrock 2019 was a year of continued growth for the Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum. It was the first full year under the direction of Executive Director Megan Hahin. All of the museum’s staff brought new ideas and enthusiasm to their positions, for which we on the Board of Trustees are appreciative.
The board also appreciates our many volunteers and members who support the museum in numerous ways. Whether you give your time or support through funding, it keeps the museum operating and allows us to share our exclusive history with nearly 20,000 visitors each year.
In 2020 we look forward to more growth in our educational programs for children and adults. We also eagerly provide new offerings to our members and visitors. The board has great hope that all funding will be in place to construct a new exhibit hall, which will house and interpret our growing music collection. Our collection includes various band organs and Wurlitzer and B.A.B. perforators that produce music rolls for band organs and automatic player pianos.
If you have ever considered volunteering, your help would be a blessing to the museum, so please apply to become one of our museum family. You can also help by being an advocate for the museum with family and friends. Word of mouth is the best advertisement.
Hoping to see you at the museum this season which opens April 1st. Once again there is a full schedule of family and adult events, so check our [events page]. Even better, follow us on Facebook at /HerschellMuseum for up to date notices.
This month’s volunteer is Brant Estrada! Brant is a sophomore in an area high school. He began volunteering here because of his passion for band organs and player pianos.
Brant visited the museum multiple times with his mom and grandmother. After his birthday in the fall of 2019, Brant began volunteering at the museum.
Brant’s role at the museum is Education Assistant in the Music Department. He maintains the museum’s 1922 Wurlitzer Player piano and regularly performs demonstrations for guests. He also restores player piano rolls in the museum collection. He has repaired over 50 rolls so far to be used by visitors.
Brant’s favorite things about the museum are the Artizan-D Band Organ and the Buffalo Heritage Carousel’s Wurlitzer 153 Band Organ (currently on loan to HCFM and displayed in the museum). Brant hopes to one day own a Wurlitzer Band Organ.
Great job Brant and keep up the good work!